This paper deals with the boundary conditions regarding layout, geotechnics and economics required to make a full-face excavation of a tunnel. A flowchart for decision-making leads to four different excavation sequences. Unsuitable geometrical conditions and very unfavourable geotechnical conditions exclude full-face excavation. Under other boundary conditions, a full-face excavation may show economic advantages, which should be further exploited in our region.
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By Peter Schubert